Corrosion Characterisation of Brazing Ag59Cu31Pd10 Alloy for Potential Dental Applications

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.30544/MMD25

Abstract

This research addresses the corrosion behaviour of the Ag-based alloy with Pd as the component in three different corrosion environments: standard physiological saline solution (SS; 0.9% NaCl), Ringer’s solution (RS), and Fusayama's artificial saliva (AS) at 37 °C. The examination has a primary goal to evaluate the suitability of the alloy as dental material and is used following the electrochemical methods: open circuit potential (OCP), linear polarisation resistance (LRP), and Tafel extrapolation from the potentiodynamic measurement, which is a broad interval of anodic potential. Chemical analysis of the RS after recording a polarisation curve was also a significant part of the study. The results showed OCP values from 35 mV to 65 mV and polarisation resistance values (Rp) in the interval from 8.5 up to 19.3 kΩ×cm2. The most corrosive solution was RS, and the least was AS. The corrosion current density in AS was close to 1 μA×cm-2. Although the alloy, in AS particularly, has a relatively high Rp value and OCP close to the Ag alloys with a higher content of noble metals, it has low breakdown potential, which directly led to its classification as an unstable dental material for permanent use. The concentrations of the metals in RS were at ppb levels for Ag, tens of ppb for Pd, and 0.64 mg×dm-3 for Cu. Regardless of the unsatisfactory corrosion characteristics for the application, the paper showed good potential for the Ag-Cu-Pd system as a brazing filler for dental use and as an adequate control for similar studies.

Keywords:

silver brazing alloy, dental application, corrosion, isotonic solutions, artificial saliva
Supporting Agencies
This work was financially supported by the Ministry of Science, Technological Development and Innovation of the Republic of Serbia, contracts number: 451-03-66/2024-03/ 200052, 451-03-65/2024-03/200135 and 451-03-66/2024-03/200287.

References

Arjmand, Farzin and Adriaens, Annemie. "Influence of pH and Chloride Concentration on the Corrosion Behavior of Unalloyed Copper in NaCl Solution: A Comparative Study Between the Micro and Macro Scales," Materials, no. 5 (2012):2439-2464.

https://doi.org/10.3390/ma5122439

Commission Regulation (EU) No 494/2011 of 20 May 2011 amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) as regards Annex XVII (Cadmium).

https://doi.org/10.1016/S1351-4210(11)70151-2

Dimitrijević, S.P., Manasijević, D., Kamberović, Ž., Dimitrijević, S.B., Mitrić, M., Milan Gorgievski, M., Mladenović S., "Experimental Investigation of Microstructure and Phase Transitions in Ag-Cu-Zn Brazing Alloys, " Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 27, (2018): 1570-1579.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-018-3258-1

Dimitrijević, Stevan P., Rajčić-Vujasinović, Mirjana, Kamberović, Željko, Dimitrijević, Silvana B., Grekulović, Vesna, Trumić, Biserka, Ivanović, Aleksandra, "The Corrosion Behavior of an Ag43Cu37Zn20 Alloy in the Natural Seawaters," Materials Transactions, 56 no. 12 (2015): 2088-2091.

Dimitrijević, Stevan P., Vurdelja, Borislava D., Dimitrijević, Silvana B., Veljković, Filip M., Kamberović, Željko J. and Veličković, Suzana R." Complementary methods for characterization of the corrosion products on the surface of Ag60Cu26Zn14 and Ag58.5Cu31.5Pd10 brazing alloys" Corrosion Reviews 38, no. 2 (2020): 111-125.

https://doi.org/10.1515/corrrev-2019-0067

Directive (EU) 2020/2184 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2020 on the quality of water intended for human consumption. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/dir/2020/2184/oj (accessed 5th March 2024)

Duffó, G.S., Quezada Castillo, E., "Development of an Artificial Saliva Solution for Studying the Corrosion Behavior of Dental Alloys, " Corrosion 60 no. 6. (2004): 594-602.

https://doi.org/10.5006/1.3287764

Grgur, Branimir N., Lazić, Vojkan, Stpjić, Dragana, Rudolf Rebeka, "Electrochemical testing of noble metal dental alloys: The influence of their chemical composition on the corrosion resistance," Corrosion Science, 184, (2021): 109412.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.corsci.2021.109412

Ha, Hung, Payer, Joe. "The effect of silver chloride formation on the kinetics of silver dissolution in chloride solution," Electrochimica Acta, 56 no. 7, (2011): 2781-2791.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2010.12.050

Hwang, Chung-Ju, Shin and Jung-Yul Cha, "Metal release from simulated fixed orthodontic appliances, " American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 120 no. 4, (2001): 383-391.

https://doi.org/10.1067/mod.2001.117911

Joska, L., Marek, M. Leitner. "The mechanism of corrosion of palladium-silver binary alloys in artificial saliva," Biomaterials, 26, no. 14, (2005): 1605-1611.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2004.05.018

Joska, Ludek, Poddana, Marcela and Leitner, Jindrich. "Corrosion behavior of palladium-silver-copper alloys in model saliva, " Dental Materials, 24, no. 8, (2008): 1009-1016.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2007.11.017

Krupa, D., Baszkiewicz, J., Kozubowski, J.A., Lewandowska-Szumieł, M. Lewandowska-Szumieł, Barcz, A., Sobczak, A. Biliński, J.W., and Rajchel, A. "Effect of calcium and phosphorus ion implantation on the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of titanium, " Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering 14 (2004): 525-536.

Lukács, Zoltán, Kristóf, Tamás, "Determination of kinetic parameters from a new quadratic approximation of the Butler-Volmer equation," Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry no. 918 (2022): 116443.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelechem.2022.116443

Manaranche, Claire and Hornberger, Helga. "A proposal for the classification of dental alloys according to their resistance to corrosion," Dental Materials, 23, no. 11, (2007): 1428-1437.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2006.11.030

Ntasi, Argiro, Al Jabbari, Youssef S., Mueller, Wolf Dieter and Spiros Zinelis, Theodore. "Electrochemical characterization of novel Ag-based brazing alloys for dental applications," Dental Materials, 35 no. 8, (2019): e163-e174.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2019.05.005

Ntasi, Argyro; Jabbari, Youssef Al, Mueller, Wolf Dieter, Eliades, George and Zinelis, Spiros, "Metallurgical and electrochemical characterization of contemporary silver-based soldering alloys," Angle Orthodontist 84 no. 3 (2014) 84 (3): 508-515.

https://doi.org/10.2319/073013-569.1

Perry, Edwin R., "The role of palladium in silver-copper braze alloys," University of Surrey (United Kingdom) ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, (1989): 10804358.

Porcayo-Calderon, J., Casales-Diaz, M., Salinas-Bravo, V.M., Martinez-Gomez, L., "Corrosion Performance of Fe-Cr-Ni Alloys in Artificial Saliva and Mouthwash Solution," Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications 2015 (2015): 930802.

https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/930802

Roy, R.K. and Ghosh, M., "Advancement of brazing filler alloy: An overview, Joining Processes for Dissimilar and Advanced Materials," Woodhead Publishing Reviews: Mechanical Engineering Series, (2022): 553-579.

https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-85399-6.00012-6

Sarantopoulos, Demetrios M., Beck, Kelly A. Holsen, Robert and Berzins, David W. "Corrosion of CoCr and NiCr dental alloys alloyed with palladium," The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 105 no. 1, (2011): 35-43.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3913(10)60188-6

Tufekçi, Eser, Mitchell, John C., Olesik, John W. Brantley, William A., Monaghan, Peter and Johnston, William M. "ICP-MS measurements of elemental release from two palladium alloys into a corrosion testing medium for different solution volumes and agitation conditions," The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 128 no. 3, (2022): 522-528.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2020.12.038

Veljković, M. Filip, Dimitrijević, P. Stevan, Dimitrijević, B. Silvana, Vurdelja, D. Borislava, Matović, Z. Branko, Stoiljković, M. Milovan, Kamberović, J. Željko and Veličković R. Suzana, "Prospective of the LDI MS to characterization the corrosion products of silver-copper alloys on an example of the Ag-Cu-X (X- Zn, Pd, In) system," Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 16, no 2, (2023): 104461.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2022.104461

Viennot, Stéphane, Lissac, Michèle, Malquarti, Guillaume, Dalard, Francis, Grosgogeat, Brigitte. "Influence of casting procedures on the corrosion resistance of clinical dental alloys containing palladium, "Acta Biomaterialia, 2, no 3, (2006): 321-330.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2006.01.001

Wataha, John C. "Biocompatibility of dental casting alloys. " The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 83, no. 2, (2000): 223-234.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3913(00)80016-5

Wataha, John C. "Alloys for prosthodontic restorations, The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry," 87 no 4, (2002): 351-363.

https://doi.org/10.1067/mpr.2002.123817

Way, Matthew, Willingham, Jack and Goodall, Russell. "Brazing filler metals," International materials reviews, 65 no. 5, (2020): 257-285.

https://doi.org/10.1080/09506608.2019.1613311

Published

02-04-2024

Issue

Section

Advanced Biomaterials in Demanding Applications